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Standards of Practice

In order to attain Full membership of the Practitioners Register, members must achieve the standards set by tESA. These standards are detailed in tESA’s “Information Document” and the relevant sections: Appendices A, B & D can be seen by following the links. The full Information Document including Code of Ethics and Practice can be obtained from the Membership Secretary (see Contact us). Requirements for professional practice include knowledge and understanding of Shiatsu Theory and technique, and how these are applied specifically to horses, horse handling and behaviour, Equine Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology.

In creating standards for Equine Shiatsu practitioners, tESA has been careful to keep a sense of diversity and acknowledgement of people coming from different places in terms of Shiatsu. Some training programmes offered by tESA members are ratified by the Association, which means that Graduates can go straight onto the Practitioners Register (see Training Information). However, people already trained in Human Shiatsu, or those who have trained unconventionally may have their expertise acknowledged via APEL (Accreditation of Prior Experience and Learning). The standards for Practitioners have been defined in terms of “learning outcomes” so that no particular course of training is proscribed. So long as applicants can show evidence of reaching the required standard they will be accepted onto the Register. The committee arranges individual assessments for people in this category.

Members of the public can be assured that all Practitioners on the Register have achieved tESA’s required standard. Practitioners also hold Professional Indemnity and Public Liability insurance.

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APPENDIX A: EQUINE REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX B: SHIATSU REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX D: DETAILED EQUINE ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY REQUIREMENTS
EQUINE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
EQUINE PATHOLOGY
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APPENDIX A: EQUINE REQUIREMENTS

A. Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology


BHS Stage 3, NVQ Level 3 or other appropriate evidence will meet the required standard set for initial registration with tESA. See Appendix D for detailed requirements. Within the first two years of registration practitioners should aim to develop of working knowledge of equine nervous, lymphatic and endocrine systems to NVQ level 4, BHS Stage 4 or other appropriate evidence demonstrating knowledge at this level. See Addendum to Appendix D for full details of requirements.

Equine Behaviour, Horse Handling and Safety


An Equine Shiatsu practitioner should have an awareness and appreciation of the instincts of the horse as a prey animal. They should have the knowledge necessary to identify and interpret behaviour, and act accordingly. They should be able to control a horse at all times without using violence, either physical or verbal.
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APPENDIX B: SHIATSU REQUIREMENTS

There are many styles of Shiatsu and various models of theory and diagnosis in current usage.
tESA will accept onto its Register all practitioners who can show their competence in two models of Shiatsu that have a comprehensive diagnostic method and involve appropriate and effective touch.

A. Theory


1. An Equine Shiatsu practitioner has knowledge of:

 a) The pervasiveness of Ki within the body and throughout Nature.

 b) The concept of Yin Yang.

 c) The concept of the transformation of Ki through the Five Elements.

 d) In addition a practitioner should show a working knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zen Shiatsu theory or Five Element theory.

2. An Equine Shiatsu practitioner has a systematic means of diagnosis using Shiatsu theory, as defined above, and has working knowledge of the following diagnostic methods:

 a) Visual: distribution of Ki in the body, posture, personality, facial diagnosis, movement, tongue diagnosis.

 b) Touch: at least two of the following:- meridian palpation, Masunaga's back & hara diagnosis, Yu & Bo points, pulse diagnosis, Ting points.

3. An Equine Shiatsu practitioner has knowledge of the function of each of the classical meridians.

4. An Equine Shiatsu practitioner knows the location of the classical meridians and has a working repertory (i.e. knowledge of location and function) of 70 points including all beginning and ending points of the 14 classical channels, all Yu and Bo points. Point locations may be either traditional or transpositional.

B. Quality of Touch, Connection with Ki and Application of Shiatsu technique


An Equine Shiatsu practitioner;

1. needs to be in touch with Ki and have a good quality of touch.

2. works on the horse appropriately and effectively, with sensitivity and a positive connection to the horse's Ki, having awareness of the horse's responses to treatment/touch and bearing in mind the principles of equine behaviour.

3. applies Shiatsu using correctly angled pressure, with posture and movement centred in hara, working with due attention to the safety and comfort of all involved.

4. has knowledge of a variety of different techniques which may disperse, tonify or otherwise modify Ki within the body.
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APPENDIX C: CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CPD requirements
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APPENDIX D: DETAILED EQUINE ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY REQUIREMENTS

Equine Shiatsu practitioners are required to have a basic understanding of the musculo-skeletal structure of the horse and the structural organisation and functions of organs and organ systems.
The underpinning knowledge and understanding requirements are listed below for each system in terms of "learning outcomes", i.e. what the practitioner should know.

It is envisaged that for practitioners not able to supply evidence as detailed in Appendix A, paragraph A, tESA will provide a series of worksheets which, on completion, will ensure knowledge and understanding of the required learning outcomes.
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EQUINE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR INITIAL FULL REGISTRATION

The practitioner will be able to:

Outcome 1: Identify the basic points of the horse.

Outcome 2: Identify the structure and functions of the systems associated with support and movement (i.e. skeletal and muscular systems).

Outcome 3: Identify the structure and functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

Outcome 4: Identify the structure and function of the digestive and excretory system.

Outcome 5: Identify the integumentary system (i.e. skin).

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 1:

The practitioner will be able to identify: the forelock, throat, windpipe, poll, atlas, crest, withers, point of shoulder, breast, point of elbow, knee, cannon bone, fetlock, pastern, coronet band, bulb of heel, hoof wall, frog, cleft of frog, loins, croup, dock, hip joint, point of buttock, flank, stifle joint, hamstring, gaskin, point of hock, hock.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 2:

The practitioner will be able to:

1. State the function of the skeleton

 a) support
 b) protection
 c) attachment of skeletal muscle
 d) leverage
 e) source of blood cells
 f) calcium storage

2. Define the structure and function of the axial and abaxial (appendicular) skeletons.

3. Define the structure of a synovial joint.

4. Describe the structure and state the function of muscle:

 a) voluntary or striated
 b) smooth
 c) cardiac

5. Be able to identify the location and state the functional importance of the following superficial muscles: masseter, splenius, rhomboideus, trapezius, lattissimus dorsi, external intercostal, sternocephalicus, brachiocephalic, deltoid, pectoral, triceps, digital extensors, digital flexors, longissimus dorsi (deep), gluteal, semitendinosus, biceps femoris.

6. Be able to identify the superficial ligaments (nuchal, sacro iliac, sacro sciatic, suspensory and check), the tendons and stay apparatus.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 3:

The practitioner will be able to:

1. describe the structure of each component of the cardiovascular system
e.g. heart, blood vessels, blood.

2. list the functions of the cardiovascular system
e.g. transport, defence against disease, temperature regulation.

3. describe the structure of the respiratory system
e.g. trachea, lungs, diaphragm.

4. Define the mechanics of external respiration and gaseous exchanges in the lungs and tissues.

5. list the factors affecting respiratory rate.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 4:

The practitioner will be able to:

1. name the structure of the following parts of the digestive system: the mouth, teeth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver.

2. state the functions of the digestive system:

 a) mechanical digestion.
 b) chemical digestion - role of enzymes in saliva, gastric juice, intestinal juice, pancreatic juice and bile.
 c) Absorption.
 d) egestion of dietary components.

3. name the structure of the kidneys bladder and excretory system.

4. describe the function of the kidneys and storage/release of urine by the bladder.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 5:

The practitioner will be able to describe:

1. the basic structure of the epidermis and the dermis.

2. thermo-regulation.

3. growth and repair.

4. protecting and sensing.
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EQUINE PATHOLOGY

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR FULL REGISTRATION

The practitioner will be able to:

Outcome 1: recognise simple injuries.

Outcome 2: recognise simple illnesses and diseases all common to the horse.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 1:

The practitioner will be able to:

1. recognise the 5 different types of wounds and be able to treat accordingly.

2. identify heat, swelling and inflammation.

3. prevent excessive bleeding.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 2:

The practitioner will:

1. understand the importance of not diagnosing or using the word "diagnosis" in terms of western pathology.

2. be able to liaise with the vet and understand the importance of following veterinary advice.

3. recognise the limits of their ability and know when to advise if a wound/disease/illness requires veterinary attention.

4. Recognise the symptoms of the following conditions: colic, sweet itch, azoturia/tying-up, strangles, urticaria, rainscald/mud fever, laminitis, bursal enlargements, sprains, bony enlargements.

ADDENDUM TO APPENDIX D:
LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR FULL REGISTRATION

Following their initial inclusion on tESA's full Register of Practitioners, practitioners will have up to two years to complete and submit for approval their documented evidence of continued study relating to the nervous, lymphatic and endocrine systems. See Appendix A, paragraph A for attainment level.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The practitioner will have a working knowledge of:

Outcome 1: the nervous system.

Outcome 2: the endocrine system.

Outcome 3: the lymphatic system.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 1:

The practitioner will be able to describe:

1. the Central Nervous System (CNS), including major functions of the anterior or forebrain, the midbrain, the brain stem or hindbrain, the cerebellum, the spinal cord.

2. the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS / Somatic Nervous System), including the cranial and peripheral nerves (not detailed locations).

3. the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), including the functions of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions.

4. the functions and characteristics of: neurons, the synapse, nerve fibres, sensory nerves, motor nerves.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 2:

The practitioner will have a working knowledge of:

1. the location, function and specific hormones secreted by the following endocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, thymus, pancreas, adrenals, gonads.

2. the relationship between the endocrine system and the Autonomic Nervous System.

Underpinning knowledge for Outcome 3:

The practitioner will have a working knowledge of:

1. the connection between the lymphatic system and the cardio-vascular system.

2. the functions and characteristics of: lymph fluid, lymphatic vessels, lymph cells, lymph nodes.

3. the spleen and its function relating to the lymphatic system.

4. the thymus and its function.

5. defence mechanisms both mechanical and chemical, and in specific: white blood cells, antibodies, antigens, vaccination, innate immunity.
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